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Biometrics

Introduction      

Physiological or Behavioral

Verification vs. Identification

Applications

Biometrics Technologies

How it works

Benefits

Are Biometric Systems Difficult to Use?

Security of Biometrics           Template

What Factors Cause Biometric Systems to Fail?

Application design

 

Biometrics

How it works

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Biometric systems convert data derived from behavioral or physiological characteristics into templates, which are used for subsequent matching. This is a multi-stage process whose stages are described below.  

Enrollment - The process whereby a user’s initial biometric sample or samples are collected, assessed, processed, and stored for ongoing use in a biometric system. Enrollment takes place in both 1:1 and 1:N systems. If users are experiencing problems with a biometric system, they may need to re-enroll to gather higher quality data. 

Submission - The process whereby a user provides behavioral or physiological data in the form of biometric samples to a biometric system. A submission may require looking in the direction of a camera or placing a finger on a platen. Depending on the biometric system, a user may have to remove eyeglasses, remain still for a number of seconds, or recite a pass phrase in order to provide a biometric sample. 

Acquisition device – The hardware used to acquire biometric samples. The following acquisition devices are associated with each biometric technology:

Technology Acquisition Device
Fingerprint Desktop peripheral, PCMCIA card, mouse, chip or reader embedded in keyboard
Voice recognition Microphone, telephone
Facial recognition Video camera, PC camera, single-image camera
Iris-scan Infrared-enabled video camera, PC camera
Retina-scan Proprietary desktop or wall-mountable unit
Hand geometry Proprietary wall-mounted unit
Signature-scan Signature tablet, motion-sensitive stylus 
Keystroke-scan Keyboard or keypad

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